FIELD BRIEF: Andrographis Paniculata & COVID-19

FIELD BRIEF: Andrographis Paniculata & COVID-19

LAST UPDATED: Feb 11th, 2021

This is a work in progress! As more information and expertise becomes available it will be added here.

SUMMARY

This is a Field Brief with current research on Andrographis Paniculata and its current and potential use as a treatment for COVID-19.

We've compiled relevant research and information here as a grounds for conversation and to provide you an entrance to do your own sensemaking.

Please feel free to make constructive suggestions, critiques & contributions to this knowledge base, as new research and media coverage is always emerging and it will be regularly updated.

โ€ผ๏ธ DISCLAIMERS & DISCLOSURE โ€ผ๏ธ

This Field Brief is for informational purposes only. We (the authors) have run our sensemaking process sufficiently to want to share what we consider to be key insights surfacing in the fight against the Coronavirus. We're not trying to convince anyone of anything with this document, rather present our research and current perspectives and insights, and what we're doing to mitigate the risk in our own lives.

Remember,

๐Ÿง DYOS Do Your Own Sensemaking.

๐Ÿ”ฆ DRWO Do Research With Others.

๐Ÿ‘ฉ๐Ÿฝโ€โš–๏ธ DTTS Defer To Trusted Sources, and verify.

๐Ÿ‘‡ DWLS Down With Lazy Sensemaking!

DISCLOSURE: The authors of this document have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest, or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this Field Brief. None of the information, analysis or synthesis offered in this document should be taken as medical advice or medical recommendations. If you are dealing with COVID-19, seek expert medical care immediately.

๐Ÿงญ OVERVIEW

In late December 2020, Thailand's Ministry of Health approved a new treatment for COVID in the form of a plant extract of Andrographis Paniculata, or Green Chiretta, locally known as Fah Talai Jone in Thai. Over the last few months, in-silico studies and clinical trials have been underway in Thailand, Indonesia, India and China on Andrographis and Andrographolides (its active components) for use in treatment of COVID-19. After completing clinical trials over the last few months, the Thai Health Ministry is currently offering a standardized Andrographis extract to treat COVID-19. The treatment was initially made available in five state-owned hospital on a voluntary basis for those in the age group of 18 to 60 years old with minor symptoms and administered within 72 hours of confirmed infections. The ministry cited that the plant extract can curb virus and reduce severity of inflammation, of which at the time, human trials showed patient conditions improved within three days of the treatment without side effects if the medicine is administered within the said confirmed infections hours (ref).

Traditionally used across India and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Indonesia, Cambodia, etc.) it is known as the "King of Bitters", used to treat a wide variety of symptoms and conditions. Andrographis has also undergone extensive scientific and toxicity analysis as well as clinical studies of its active components over the last 3 decades, overall showing to be very safe with few side effects (see Kaiser References). It also available through more suppliers than you can shake a stick at on Amazon, in all forms from pills to tinctures and extracts.

After doing a sweep of available clinical research on Andrographis, Andrographolide and COVID-19 (see scientific studies), our current stance is that is an extremely low-risk, high-potential reward supplement to have on hand for ourselves and our loved ones while the virus rages on and we wait for vaccinations - especially as new variants of the virus emerge that current vaccines may be less effective against. We're confident enough to order some for ourselves to have on hand, for a bit more peace of mind.

Here's what we've learned:

๐ŸŒฑ ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA

Common name: Green Chiretta

Other names: Kalmegh, Fah Talai Jone

Native to: India, Southeast Asia, China

Active ingredient: Andrographolides

image

Medicinal Uses: Content sourced from ๐Ÿ”—Andrographis Paniculata info page of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, where references for the statements below can be found in full. "Andrographis has been mostly studied for the treatment of colds, flu, and upper respiratory infections. Lab studies suggest possible anticancer effects, but this has not been confirmed in humans. Andrographis paniculata is used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases and fevers. Andrographis exhibits antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunostimulating properties. Either alone or in combination with other herbs, andrographis has been shown to reduce duration and severity of upper respiratory infections such as those associated with the common cold or flu. Andrographis extract may benefit patients with ulcerative colitis. It also reduced symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. However, patients should use caution before using this herb as it may interact with many drugs." Source: ๐Ÿ”—Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Andrographis Paniculata in the wild (source: wikimedia)
Andrographis Paniculata in the wild (source: wikimedia)

๐Ÿฅ Kaiser Permanente & Memorial Sloan (NY) on Andrographis Paniculata

On these institutions' information pages about Andrographis, you can find reference to multiple controlled double blind studies that seemed to demonstrate clinically significant impacts of taking the extract in some uses. KP's star rating system helps to evaluate which uses of the supplement are supported by reliable and relatively consistent scientific data. Also outlined are how its been used (not for COVID-19), and the mechanisms of action.

๐Ÿ‘จ๐Ÿฟโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ“„ THE SCIENCE: Andrographis, Andrographolides & COVID-19

The following are academic papers released within the last year that relate to Andrographis, Andrographolides, COVID-19, as well as some information on other herbal-derived compounds being used to treat COVID. We are still collecting information on the authors of these studies and their affiliations, but have made all efforts to only include research papers from bonafide academic, medical and research institutions. Expand each arrow to access the original scientific studies, affiliated institutions, and a selection from the abstracts. list current as of February 8th, 2021.

๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท: Brazil

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ: China

๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช: Germany

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ: India

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ: Indonesia

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช: Ireland

๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ: Poland

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ: Nigeria

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช: Sweden

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผ: Taiwan

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ: Thailand

๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง: UK

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ: USA

๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช: Venezuela

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ: Singapore

Overviews & Reviews

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ“„ Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology (2014)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Benin, Nigeria

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Crop Science, University of Benin, Nigeria

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Benin, Nigeria

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3A, 18059 Rostock, Germany

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, 38655 Oxford, Mississippi, USA

๐Ÿ”– Publisher / Journal
๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

This review describes the past and present state of research on Andrographis paniculata with respect to the medicinal usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity profile and therapeutic usage, in order to bridge the gap requiring future research opportunities. This review is based on literature study on scientific journals and books from library and electronic sources. Diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides and other miscellaneous compounds have been isolated from the plant. Extract and pure compounds of the plant have been reported for their anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone/sexual function modulation, liver enzymes modulation insecticidal and toxicity activities. The results of numerous toxicity evaluations of extracts and metabolites isolated from this plant did not show any significant acute toxicity in experimental animals. Detailed and more comprehensive toxicity profile on mammalian tissues and organs is needed in future studies.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ“„ COVID-19: Is There Evidence for the Use of Herbal Medicines as Adjuvant Symptomatic Therapy? (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Biophysics and Biochemistry Center, Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, Caracas, Venezuela

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitรณria, Brazil

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, School of Pharmacy, University College of London, London, United Kingdom

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

Overall assessment. Andrographis may be useful in the symptomatic relief of respiratory symptoms, especially in terms of alleviating the symptoms of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections. Its traditional use as cold therapy in the context of upper respiratory conditions is not backed up by robust clinical data, but the evidences allow to infer a potential use in the relief of early symptoms of COVID-19. The clinical evidence may be considered High, and as although no severe concerns are reported, this herbal medicine may exert immunomodulatory activities so can be cautiously rated as Medium safety.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ“„ Theoretical basis and effect characteristics of andrographolide against COVID-19 (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ TCM Research Center, Tasly Holding Group Co., Ltd., Tianjin 300410, China;State Key Laboratory of Critical Technology in Innovative Chinese Medicine, Tasly Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Tianjin, 300410, China

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital, Jinan 250013, China

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

This paper summarized the pharmacological action and clinical application of andrographolide, and proposed that it has the functions of clearing heat and detoxification, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory, and definite therapeutic effect on respiratory system diseases including viral pneumonia and upper respiratory tract infection, and a large number of clinical data have been accumulated. Andrographolide has a potential antiviral effect on the treatment of COVID-19, and can reduce the level of inflammation in patients, improve respiratory symptoms, inhibit concurrent bacterial infection, and improve the body immunity. At the same time, it will not bring the immunosuppressive effect of hormone drugs, and the incidence of adverse reactions is low. In addition, Andrographolide has certain hepatoprotective effects and clinical value for treating cardiovascular diseases in clinical experience, suggesting that it may have some protective effects on drug-induced liver injury, heart injury and liver injury caused by durgs against COVID-19, but further clinical verification is needed.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ“„ Polypharmacology of andrographolide: beyond one molecule one target (OCT 2020)
๐Ÿ”– Publisher / Journal

Natural Product Report

๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Immunology Program, Life Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Singapore-HUJ Alliance for Research and Enterprise, National University of Singapore, Singapore

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Drug Discovery and Optimization Platform, Medical Science Cluster, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection
๐Ÿ’ก

Andrographolide is one of the most widely studied plant secondary metabolites, known to display diverse pharmacological actions. Current literature has documented a sizeable list of pharmacological targets for andrographolide, suggesting its multi-targeting nature. Many of these targets are central to the pathophysiology of highly prevalent diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity, and even cancer. Despite its well-documented therapeutic efficacy in various disease models, for years, the discrepancies between in vivo bioavailability and bioactivity of andrographolide and the debate surrounding its multi-targeting properties (polypharmacology or promiscuity?) have hindered the development of this versatile molecule into a potential therapeutic agent. Is andrographolide a valuable lead for therapeutic development or a potential invalid metabolic panacea (IMP)? This perspective article aims to discuss this by considering various contributing factors to the polypharmacology of andrographolide.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link

๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ“„ Natural agents modulating ACE-2: A review of compounds with potential against SARS-CoV-2 infections. (2021)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Laboratory of Electrophysiology and Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS. Brazil.

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Laboratory of Reproductive Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Paranรก, Curitiba. Brazil.

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, PostGraduate Program in Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapeutics in Basic Attention, Paranaense University, Umuarama. Brazil.

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation (ICETI), University Center of Maringa, Maringa. Brazil.

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirรฃo Preto, University of Sรฃo Paulo, Ribeirรฃo Preto, SP. Brazil.

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaรญ, Itajaรญ, SC. Brazil.

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

This review aims to discuss recent developments related to medicinal properties of natural compounds as ACE/ACE-2 inhibitors, which should be highlighted in the future development of studies looking for modulators in SARSCoV-2 infection. Data show that bioactive compounds isolated from several natural products act by inhibiting ACE/ACE2, which changes the entire axis of this system. Of the compounds addressed in this review, 7 phenolic compounds, including quercetin, curcumin, naringenin, luteolin, hesperidin, mangiferin, and gallic acid showed binding affinity with molecular ACE-2 target in silico, and 1, esculetin, decreased ACE-2 expression in vivo. Regarding terpenoids and alkaloids, nimbin, withaferin A, andrographolide, zingiberene and, berberine, piperine and thebaine, respectively, showed binding affinity with molecular ACE-2 target in silico. These findings reinforce the need for future preclinical and clinical studies on these compounds and specific inhibitory effects on ACE-2 of all the other compounds described herein only as nonspecific ACE inhibitors.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ“„ Analysis on clinical study protocols of traditional Chinese medicine for coronavirus disease 2019 (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Evidence-based Medicine Center, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Tianjin 301617, China

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

In this article, in silico studies have been performed to explore the binding modes of chemical constituents for natural remedies like Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Andrographis paniculata against COVID-19 (PDB ID 5R82) targeting coronavirus using Schrodinger suit 2019-4. The molecular docking studies are performed by the Glide module, in silico ADMET screening was performed by the QikProp module, and binding energy of ligands was calculated using the Prime MM-GB/SA module. Results The chemical constituents from turmeric like cyclocurcumin and curcumin and from Andrographis paniculata like andrographolide and dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone are significantly binding with the active site of SARS CoV-2 main protease with Glide score more than โˆ’โ€‰6 when compared to the currently used drugs hydroxychloroquine (โˆ’โ€‰5.47) and nelfinavir (โˆ’โ€‰5.93). Based on in silico investigations, the chemical constituents from turmeric like cyclocurcumin and curcumin and from Andrographis paniculata like andrographolide and dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone, significantly binding with the active site of SARS CoV-2 main protease, may produce significant activity and be useful for further development.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐Ÿ“„ Traditional Herbal Medicine for the Prevention and Treatment of Cold and Flu in the Autumn of 2020, Overlapped With COVID-19 (AUG 2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ College of Life Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei, China; Global Alliance of HeBAU-CLS&HeQiS for BioAl-Manufacturing, Baoding, Hebei, China

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

A literature survey was accomplished using multiple databases including PubMed, Science Direct, ISI web of knowledge, and Google Scholar. The most important antiviral herbs for cold and flu are Thymus vulgaris, honeysuckle flowers, Andrographis, yarrow, peppermint leaf and oil, and Calendula. The most important expectorant herbs for flu and cold are tulsi, snake root, licorice root, clove, slippery elm root, marshmallow osha root, and sage leaf. Immunostimulant herbs for these 2 diseases are Echinacea root, Eucalyptus, garlic, ginseng, marshmallow, slippery elm, Isatisroot, Usnea lichen, myrrh resin, and ginger root. In this mini-review, we mention the key role of some of the most important herbal plants and prescriptions against influenza and cold on the basis of traditional Asian medicine.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

In Silico Approaches

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ“„ Andrographolide and its fluorescent derivative inhibit the main proteases of 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV through covalent linkage (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Biomedical Industry Ph.D. Program, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Aging and Health Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has been a crisis of global health, whereas the effective vaccines against 2019-nCoV are still under development. Alternatively, utilization of old drugs or available medicine that can suppress the viral activity or replication may provide an urgent solution to suppress the rapid spread of 2019-nCoV. Andrographolide is a highly abundant natural product of the medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata, which has been clinically used for inflammatory diseases and anti-viral therapy. We herein demonstrate that both andrographolide and its fluorescent derivative, the nitrobenzoxadiazole-conjugated andrographolide (Andro- NBD), suppressed the main protease (Mpro) activities of 2019-nCoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Considering that andrographolide is used in clinical practice with acceptable safety and its diverse pharmacological activities that could be beneficial for attenuating COVID-19 symptoms, extensive investigation of andrographolide on the suppression of 2019-nCoV as well as its application in COVID-19 therapy is suggested. Both A. paniculata extract and andrographolide alone are currently used worldwide for treating upper respiratory diseases as well as inflammatory diseases [[10], [11], [12]]. In addition, their clinical trials demonstrate that no significant adverse effects were observed in patients [[10], [11], [12]].

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ“„ Andrographis paniculata (Green chiretta) may combat COVID-19 (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ 110th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Faculty of Public Health, St. Theresa International College, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

In this article, in silico studies have been performed to explore the binding modes of chemical constituents for natural remedies like Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Andrographis paniculata against COVID-19 (PDB ID 5R82) targeting coronavirus using Schrodinger suit 2019-4. The molecular docking studies are performed by the Glide module, in silico ADMET screening was performed by the QikProp module, and binding energy of ligands was calculated using the Prime MM-GB/SA module. Results The chemical constituents from turmeric like cyclocurcumin and curcumin and from Andrographis paniculata like andrographolide and dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone are significantly binding with the active site of SARS CoV-2 main protease with Glide score more than โˆ’โ€‰6 when compared to the currently used drugs hydroxychloroquine (โˆ’โ€‰5.47) and nelfinavir (โˆ’โ€‰5.93). Based on in silico investigations, the chemical constituents from turmeric like cyclocurcumin and curcumin and from Andrographis paniculata like andrographolide and dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone, significantly binding with the active site of SARS CoV-2 main protease, may produce significant activity and be useful for further development.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ“„ Anti- SARS- CoV- 2 activity of Andrographis paniculata extract and its major component Andrographolide in human lung epithelial cells and cytotoxicity evaluation in major organ cell representatives (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Section for Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Excellent Center for Drug Discovery (ECDD), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ School of Bioinnovation and Bio-Based Product Intelligence, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Center for Neuroscience, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ ChaoPhya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital, Prachin Buri 25000, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Chakri Naruebodindra Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Samutprakarn 10540 Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

Here, we optimized a high-content imaging platform and the plaque assay for viral output study using the legitimate model of human lung epithelial cells, Calu-3,to determine anti-SARS-CoVโ€“2 activity of Andrographis paniculata extract and its major component andrographolide. SARS-CoV-2 at 25TCID50 was able to reach the maximal infectivity of 95% in Calu-3 cells. Post-infection treatment of A. paniculata and andrographolide in SARS-CoVโ€“2 infected Calu-3 cells significantly inhibited the production of infectious virions with the IC50 of 0.036ฮผg/mL and 0.034ฮผM, respectively, as determined by plaque assay. The cytotoxicity profile developed over the cell line representatives of major organs, including liver (HepG2 and imHC), kidney (HK-2), intestine(Caco-2), lung (Calu-3) and brain (SH-SY5Y), showed the CC50 of >100 ฮผg/mL for A. paniculata extract and 13.2-81.5 ฮผM for andrographolide,respectively, corresponding to the selectivity index over 380.In conclusion, this study provided experimental evidence in favor of A. paniculata and andrographolide for further development as a monotherapy or in combination with other effective drugs against SARS-CoVโ€“2 infection.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ“„ The coronavirus disease 2019 main protease inhibitor from Andrographis paniculata (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Doctoral Program of Pharmaceutical Sciences

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Widya Mandala Catholic University, Surabaya,

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Palangkaraya, Indonesia

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

This study aims to find COVID-19 main protease inhibitor from AP by the molecular docking method and determine the toxicity profile of the compounds. The results obtained two compounds consisting of flavonoid glycosides 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-O-ฮฒ-D-pyran-glycuronate butyl ester and andrographolide glycoside 3-O-ฮฒ-D-glucopyranosyl-andrographolide have lower free binding energy and highest similarity in types of interaction with amino acid residues compared to its co-crystal ligands (6LU7) and Indinavir or Remdesivir. The toxicity prediction of the compounds also reveals their safety. These results confirm the probability of using AP phytochemical compounds as COVID-19 main protease inhibitors, although further research must be carried out.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ ๐Ÿ“„ Active Compounds Activity from the Medicinal Plants Against SARS-CoV-2 using in Silico Assay
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Indonesia 80362

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

The objective of this research is to determine the inhibitory ability of several active compounds from natural sources against COVID-19 target protein in silico using molecular docking. In silico research was conducted using autodock 4.2 program by evaluating the binding energy between the active compound with ACE2, TMPRSS2, RdRp, 3CLpro and PLpro as the target proteins. All chemical compounds that evaluated such as asiatic acid, andrographolide, apigenin, brazilein, brazilin, catechin, curcumin, gingerol, hesperidin, hesperetin, kaemferol, luteolin, myricetin, naringenin and quercetin had an affinity to target protein. It reflects that active compounds in medicinal plants can be used as antiviral against COVID-19.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ“„ Andrographolide as a potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease: an in silico approach (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Chennai, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacy, Periyar College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tiruchirappalli, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Centre for Drug Discovery and Development, Col. Dr. Jeppiaar Research Park, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

This paper evaluates the compound Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata as a potential inhibitor of the main protease of SARS-COV-2 (Mpro) through in silico studies such as molecular docking, target analysis, toxicity prediction and ADME prediction. Andrographolide was docked successfully in the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Computational approaches also predicts this molecule to have good solubility, pharmacodynamics property and target accuracy. This molecule also obeys Lipinskiโ€™s rule, which makes it a promising compound to pursue further biochemical and cell based assays to explore its potential for use against COVID-19.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐Ÿ“„ In silico docking analysis revealed the potential of phytochemicals present in Phyllanthus amarus and Andrographis paniculata, used in Ayurveda medicine in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560065, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Plant Pathology, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 560065, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ CHES, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Chettalli, Madikeri District, Bangalore, Karnataka, 571248, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Plant Pathology, ARS, University of Agricultural Sciences (B), Rajavanthi, Pavagada, Tumakur (Dist.), Bangalore, Karnataka, India

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

Attempt was made to provide preliminary evidences for interaction of 35 phytochemicals from two plants (Phyllanthus amarus and Andrographis paniculata used in Ayurveda) with SARS-CoV-2 proteins (open & closed state S protein, 3CLpro, PLpro and RdRp) through in silico docking analysis. The nucleotide analogue remdesivir, being used in treatment of SARS-CoV-2, was used as a positive control. The results revealed that 18 phytochemicals from P. amarus and 14 phytochemicals from A. paniculata shown binding energy affinity/dock scoreโ€‰<โ€‰โˆ’ 6.0 kcal/mol, which is considered as minimum threshold for any compound to be used for drug development. Phytochemicals used for docking studies in the current study from P. amarus and A. paniculata showed binding affinity up to โˆ’ 9.10 kcal/mol and โˆ’ 10.60 kcal/mol, respectively. There was no significant difference in the binding affinities of these compounds with closed and open state S protein. Further, flavonoids (astragalin, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin) and tannins (corilagin, furosin and geraniin) present in P. amarus have shown more binding affinity (up to โˆ’ 10.60 kcal/mol) than remdesivir (up to โˆ’ 9.50 kcal/mol). The pharmacokinetic predictions suggest that compounds from the two plants species studied in the current study are found to be non-carcinogenic, water soluble and biologically safe. The phytochemicals present in the extracts of P. amarus and A. paniculata might have synergistic effect with action on multiple target sites of SARS-CoV-2. The information generated here might serve as preliminary evidence for anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of phytochemicals present from P. amarus and A. paniculata and the potential of Ayurveda medicine in combating the virus.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ“„ Activity of phytochemical constituents of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Andrographis paniculata against coronavirus (COVID-19): an in silico approach (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy (A constituent college of JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research-deemed University), Ooty, The Nilgiris, Tamilnadu India

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

In this article, in silico studies have been performed to explore the binding modes of chemical constituents for natural remedies like Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Andrographis paniculata against COVID-19 (PDB ID 5R82) targeting coronavirus using Schrodinger suit 2019-4. The molecular docking studies are performed by the Glide module, in silico ADMET screening was performed by the QikProp module, and binding energy of ligands was calculated using the Prime MM-GB/SA module. Results The chemical constituents from turmeric like cyclocurcumin and curcumin and from Andrographis paniculata like andrographolide and dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone are significantly binding with the active site of SARS CoV-2 main protease with Glide score more than โˆ’โ€‰6 when compared to the currently used drugs hydroxychloroquine (โˆ’โ€‰5.47) and nelfinavir (โˆ’โ€‰5.93). Based on in silico investigations, the chemical constituents from turmeric like cyclocurcumin and curcumin and from Andrographis paniculata like andrographolide and dihydroxy dimethoxy flavone, significantly binding with the active site of SARS CoV-2 main protease, may produce significant activity and be useful for further development.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ“„ Immunoprotective potential of Ayurvedic herb Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) against respiratory viral infectionsโ€“LCโ€“MS/MS and network pharmacology analysis (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐ŸฅInstitute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development, An Autonomous Institute under Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, Imphal, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Health Care Division, Emami Limited 13,Kolkata, India

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

Results: The molecules from kalmegh provides immune-protection and anti-viral response via involving different pathways, like toll-like receptor pathway, PI3/AKTpathway and MAP kinase pathways against COVID-19 infection. The KEGG analysis showed that in a vast majority of the most enriched pathways, AP were associated with viral infections and upper respiratory tract infections. Conclusions: The results suggest a synergy between andrographolide and other molecules identified as safe and efficacious anti-inflammatory agent having effects on upper respiratory tract infections and can significantly decrease the production of cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors in viral infection

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

Computational Investigations

๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ“„ The antiviral activity of andrographolide, the active metabolite from andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) wall. ex nees. against sars-cov-2 by using bio-and chemoinformatic tools
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Technical Biochemistry Laboratory, Bio - Center, Faculty of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

Recently, there has been one question raised in the Thai society; โ€œCould a common Thai herbal medicine namely Andrographis paniculata be used against SARS-CoV-2 infection?โ€. It is well-known that the plant has antiviral properties against wild ranges of viruses and the active metabolite is andrographolide. To date, there have only been a few studies investigating the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity from andrographolide. To provide a better understanding, this study was conducted by applying the advanced techniques in both computational biology and chemistry to evaluate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of andrographolide.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐Ÿ“„ Computational investigation on Andrographis paniculata phytochemicals to evaluate their potency against SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to known antiviral compounds in drug trials
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Umayal Ramanathan College for Women, Karaikudi, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

Due to the rapid human to human transmission of Covid-19, we are in need to find a potent drug at the earliest by ruling-out the traditional time-consuming approach of drug development. This is only possible if we use reliable computational approaches for screening compounds from chemical space or by drug repurposing or by finding the phytochemicals and nutraceuticals from plants as they can be immediately used without the need for carrying out drug-trials to test safety and efficacy. A number of plant products were routinely suggested as drugs in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. Here using molecular docking approach, and combined molecular dynamics and MM-GBSA based free energy calculations approach, we study the potency of the four selected phytochemicals namely andrographolide (AGP1), 14-deoxy 11,12-didehydro andrographolide (AGP2), neoandrographolide (AGP3) and 14-deoxy andrographolide (AGP4) from A. paniculata plant against the four key targets including three non-structural proteins (3โ€‰L main protease (3CLpro), Papain-like proteinase (PLpro) and RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp)) and a structural protein (spike protein (S)) of the virus which are responsible for replication, transcription and host cell recognition. The therapeutic potential of the selected phytochemicals against Covid-19 were also evaluated in comparison with a few commercially available drugs. The binding free energy data suggest that AGP3 could be used as a cost-effective drug-analog for treating covid-19 infection in developing countries.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ“„ The role of andrographolide and its derivative in COVID-19 associated proteins and immune system (preprint) (2020)
๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Author Affiliations ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ School of Pharmaceutical Technology, Adamas University, Kolkata-700126, West Bengal, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, KLE College of Pharmacy, Belagavi, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (KAHER), Belagavi-590010, Karnataka, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, KLE College of Pharmacy, Belagavi, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (KAHER), Belagavi-590010, Karnataka, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Drug Development, Gwalior-474009, Madhya Pradesh, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Drug Development, Gwalior-474009, Madhya Pradesh, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Goa College of Pharmacy, Panjim-403001, Goa, India

๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ๐Ÿฅ Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi-110058, India

๐Ÿ”ฆ Abstract / Selection ๐Ÿ”ฆ
๐Ÿ’ก

The study suggests the strong interaction of the andrographolide and its derivative 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide against target proteins associated with COVID-19. Further, network pharmacology analysis elucidated the different pathways of immunomodulation. However, clinical research should be conducted to confirm the current findings.

๐Ÿ”— Direct Link ๐Ÿ”—

General Clinical Trials of Andrographis

COVID-19 related Clinical Trials of Andrographis

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿงช Thailand Phase I

๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿงช Thailand Phase II

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿงช Indonesia Phase I

๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿงช Nigeria Proposed Trials

Pan African Clinical Trials Registry:

โš•๏ธ TREATMENT PROTOCOLS

Here are some details we scoured from an article in the Bangkok Post from May. We're sure treatment protocols have evolved from then, and we would like to connect with some Thai speakers to see if we can find more specific information.

That being said, it seems as though the Kaiser Permanente "How to Use" instructions list lists 48-60mg andrographolides for the Common Cold. Though this amount is not specified in relation to COVID-19, the dosage and schedule roughly aligns with the Thai treatment protocol we found:

โš•๏ธ

"The recommendation is to take four andrographis capsules four times a day. For andrographis extract capsules, there are two choices of 10mg and 20mg andrographolide. The recommendation is to take two capsules of 10mg andrographolide or one capsule of 20mg andrographolide three times a day. The total of andrographolide for both andrographis and andrographis extract capsules is 60mg a day." Dr Supaporn Phoomamorn Institute of Biological Products Director Thailand National control laboratory for biological products of the Department of Medical Sciences under the Ministry of Public Health https://www.bangkokpost.com/life/social-and-lifestyle/1917212/the-cure-for-some-of-what-ails-you

โš•๏ธ

In China, a clinical trial was conducted by injecting the mixture of 100mg of andrographolide sulfonate, known as Xiyanping injection, and 250ml of normal saline solution to Covid-19 patients. https://www.bangkokpost.com/life/social-and-lifestyle/1917212/the-cure-for-some-of-what-ails-you

๐Ÿ“ญ AVAILABILITY AND SOURCES

There are many suppliers of Andrographis products that can easily be found on Amazon, from reputable nutrient supplement companies. They come in the form of pills and liquids at varying concentrations.

As more information becomes available about exactly the form and protocol Thai health authorities are treating people with, we'll update this section.

Here are the products we have selected for mitigating personal COVID-19 risk levels:

DISCLOSURE: NONE OF THESE LINKS CONTAIN ANY AFFILIATE LINKS, NOR ARE WE AFFILIATED WITH ANY COMPANIES OR ANY INDIVIDUALS EMPLOYED BY THEM. IF YOU HAVE COVID-19 OR SOMEONE YOU KNOW DOES, SEEK EXPERT MEDICAL CARE IMMEDIATELY AND SHARE WITH THEM THIS FIELD BRIEF FOR DISCUSSION.

Rationale: Double Woods Supplements Andrographis with AP-Bio 1000mg has a larger serving size than most, and links to what appears to be some solid clinical science behind their formulations.

One capsule is 450mg standardized andrographolide concentration of 10% (45mg), plus 50 mg of a patented andrographis extract at 30% andrographolides (15mg), rendering 1 capsule at a standardized 60mg andrographolides content. It's made in the USA, has some supporting clinical studies, and is very well reviewed on Amazon.

โ˜ฃ๏ธ CONTRAINDICATIONS & SIDE EFFECTS

This section sourced from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (NY): https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/andrographis

image
image

๐Ÿ‘ฉ๐Ÿฝโ€๐Ÿ’ป MEDIA COVERAGE OF ANDROGRAPHIS

Metanarrative Analysis

Media coverage on the topic of Andrographis is limited and spotty at best. Early on in the pandemic, a Thai website recommended taking Andrographis, based on comments of the doctors of a particular hospital on facebook. This caused a flare-up about the topic, and official organizations were quick to correct, saying that there was no scientific evidence (which there was not, at the time). However, journalistic coverage during the period conflated "no evidence as of yet" with "no evidence". There is now mounting scientific evidence, and official fact-check websites are still not updated.

In August 2020, with articles from National News organisation (Bangkok Post, Jakarta Post) containing mention of clinical trials underway in Thailand and Indonesia. There isn't much more information between August 2020 and December 2020. At the end of December 2020, the Thailand Health Ministry officially announced Andrographis extract as an effective early-stage treatment for COVID-19, which was covered by Bloomberg. Since then, there are a few more online articles which have popped up, but Andrographis still remains under the radar to the Western world at large - despite being available throughout it on Amazon Prime. ๐Ÿคทโ€โ™‚๏ธ

Timeline Summary

Major beats in the media coverage of Andrographis Paniculata. All references in below timeline can be found below in "Media Coverage".

Jan/Feb 2020

๐Ÿ“ฃ First mention online of Andrographis & COVID is made by a Thai doctor on Facebook.

๐Ÿ’ป An blog titled โ€œPraise Andrographis Paniculata to fight coronavirusโ€, was published on January 29, 2020 by Thansettakij, a Thai multimedia blog.

๐Ÿšจ The topic is strawmanned by the Associated Press within days on an official fact-check website.

March/April 2020

๐Ÿ“ฃ Beijing mandates integration of TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) in COVID-19 treatment protocols.

๐Ÿ’ฌ In Thailand people rush to government hospitals where Andrographis is being soft-promoted by government-affiliated doctors in the media and sold in the National Hospital Pharmacy.

May/June 2020

๐Ÿ“ฃ Dr. Maurice Iwu, well respected doctor in Nigeria, goes in international news to share information about the effectiveness of Nigeria's local treatment for COVID, which contains Andrographis.

July/August 2020

๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Indonesia is finishing Phase I clinical trials

๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿ”ฌ Thailand clinical trials are underway.

๐Ÿ“ฐ Article with interview with Dr. Maurice Iwu on regulatory barriers and testing of Andrographis in Nigeria.

Sep-Dec 2020

๐Ÿ“œ Thailand's Ministry of Health clears use of Andrographis as a voluntary treatment for early-stage COVID.

๐Ÿ“ฐ First western media mention: Bloomberg the only major outlet to report on Thailand's announcement.

Jan/Feb 2021

๐Ÿ“ฃ Dr. Maurice Iwu restates his findings in Nigeria

๐Ÿ“ฃ American Botanical Association and other small western online publications post about Andrographis

๐Ÿ“ฃ This Field Guide is published at kingofbitters.com

Google Trends Analysis

This graph represents search trend data on Andrographis. We have compared the various names of Andrographis. "Hempedu Bumi" is the Malaysian name for Andrographis, and Kalmegh is the Hindi word. The spike in March 2020 can be attributed to the media articles published at that time.

We can see that there are major spikes in interest February-March 2020 for "Andrographis" and "Andrographis Paniculata". Searches for "kalmegh" spike in May. The malaysian term for the plant spikes at the beginning of the year.

Search trend data shows that in Thailand Andrographis by its indigenous name has been searched for far more than the rest of the world searching Andrographis.

Media Coverage (newest โ†’ oldest)

๐Ÿ“ฐ: Article title

๐Ÿ“ข: Source Publisher

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: Date

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Vanguard News Nigeria

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 01/10/2021

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Bloomberg USA

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 12/29/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Thai PBS World

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 12/9/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: The Nation Thailand

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 08/26/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: The Jakarta Post, Indonesia

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 08/04/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Metrics Africa

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 07/18/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: News.com.au

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 07/07/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Bangkok Post, Thailand

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 05/13/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: The Guardian Nigeria

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 05/01/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Khaosad (Thai site)

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 03/17/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Bangkok Post, Thailand

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 03/17/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: The Nation (Thailand)

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 2/21/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Associated Press Fact Check

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 02/09/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ข: Thansettakij.com (Thai media blog)

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: 01/29/2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

๐Ÿ“ฐ: Thai doctor's comments on Facebook about Andrographis

๐Ÿ“ข: Facebook

๐Ÿ—“๏ธ: Late January 2020

๐Ÿค”: Analysis / Commentary

โ€ผ๏ธ FURTHER DISCLAIMERSโ€ผ๏ธ

  • Andrographis has NOT been shown as effective as a preventative COVID treatment as of yet. In other words there is no evidence as of now that Andrographis will help you avoid getting COVID-19, but it is showing effectiveness in clearing the virus if you do get it. This is an area we have flagged for further research.
  • There are no clinical trials with Andrographis in regards to efficacy on the new mutations and strains of Coronavirus, so it should not be taken as a given that it will be effective on all variants.
  • If you or someone you know gets COVID, don't rely on this guide and seek professional advice, perspectives and treatment immediately. Show them this document if you would like to discuss it with them.
  • If you notice something that could be corrected, refined, or developed further, please get in touch something so that we can improve this Field Brief.

โœ๏ธ CHANGELOG / RESEARCH TO COMPLETE

Latest edits: 02/15/2020

Changelog
2/15/2020
  • added Changelog
  • edited disclosure statement
  • added disclosure statement in "Availability" section
  • added further academic research
Planned Changes
  • Add Publishers & Journals to scientific studies
  • Mark pre-print articles as such
  • Add newly released scientific articles (>5)
  • Add new articles on India, Tamil Nadu & the ayurvedic formulations in Phase II trials there
  • Add more products from reputable suppliers
Additional Research to Complete
  • Reach out to Thai journalists / authorities / doctors for clinical research data to date

๐Ÿ“ DEBRIEF / EXIT SURVEY

Please help us improve the format and content of this Field Brief by filling out this short exit survey. Your responses will help us to evolve the content of this Field Brief as well as its effectiveness as a format for socializing high-signal sensemaking.

If you would like to discuss the content further offline, or if you have an idea for a Field Brief you are interested in developing and publishing, please get in touch and send us a message through this form.

image
image